Lando provides a nice way to:
- Emulate the experience of a "native" command but inside of a container
- Chain multiple commands running on multiple services together
- Provide dynamic routing so one command can be used on multiple services
- Provide a simple interface so commands can handle options, including interactive ones
This allows you to:
- Consolidate complex testing or build scripts into a single
- Lock down the versions you need for your tooling on a per-Landofile basis
- Avoid installing nightmares like
rvmand their ilk directly on your computer
- Never have to worry about which version of
gruntyou need for each project ever again
Make sure to install your dependencies!!!
It's fairly straightforward to add tooling to your Landofile using the
tooling top level config. Here are all the options you can use for a given tooling route and their default values.
tooling mycommand: service: this is required, use `lando info` to find the one you want description: Runs <mycommand> commands cmd: mycommand user: you options:
Tooling routes are cached!
Note that tooling routes are cached at the end of every lando invocation so you will need to run something like
lando list or dump the cache manually with
lando --clear if you are not seeing your tooling commands or changes show up correctly.
After doing so run
lando to see all the tooling commands for a given Landofile
Here are a few common implementations of the above:
Native command emulation
One of the most common uses of tooling is to emulate native commands like
tooling: php: service: appserver
The above will run
php inside of the
appserver and also pass in any additional args or options you specify. That means that you can run
lando php in the exact same way as
php. This greatly reduces the hassle involved in invoking said commands directly with
docker-compose or even
lando ssh. See below:
# OMG WHYYYYY docker exec -it mysite_appserver_1 /bin/sh -c "/usr/local/bin/php -r 'phpinfo();'" # Hmm ok that's a bit better lando ssh -c "php -r 'phpinfo();'" # Oh so nice! lando php -r "phpinfo();"
Consolidated command tooling
You may also wish to consolidate a complex command into a simpler one. This is useful because it can help prevent human error and reduce documentation.
tooling: update-deps: service: database description: Updates the installed packages on my database service cmd: apt update -y && apt install -y user: root
cmd can also be an array. This allows you to chain an indefinate amount of commands together.
tooling: fire-everything: service: node description: Runs a seemingly random assortment of commands cmd: - source ~/.bashrc - npm install "$DEP_SET_BY_ENVVAR_SOURCED_BEFORE" - /helpers/my-custom-script.sh --max-power - ls -lsa - env | grep LANDO_
Note that each line of the above runs in a separate subshell so if you
source a file in the first command like we unwisely did above it's not going to be available in any of the others. If you need that sort of behavior consider something like this instead
tooling: fire-everything: service: node description: Runs a seemingly random assortment of commands cmd: - source ~/.bashrc && npm install "$DEP_SET_BY_ENVVAR_SOURCED_BEFORE" - /helpers/my-custom-script.sh --max-power - ls -lsa - env | grep LANDO_
Multi-service Multi-command tooling
You can also omit the
service and define
cmd as an array of objects where the
key is the service and the
value is the command. This can allow you to consolidate complex testing and build steps that need to happen across many different services.
It also allows you to reuse a common interface across many different Landofiles eg
lando test may differ from project to project but it's always what we use to run our tests.
tooling: build: description: Manually invokes all our build steps cmd: - appserver: composer install - node: yarn install - node: yarn sass test: description: Run ALL THE TESTS cmd: - appserver: composer test - node: yarn test
lando test && lando build
Dynamic service commands
Sometimes you have, need or want a single command that can be used on a user-specified service. In these situations you can tell Lando to set the service with an option.
Note that the
: prefix is what tells Lando to use an option instead of a literal string. Also note that you should be careful to avoid collisions between options you specify and options the underlying command does.
tooling: php-version: service: :service cmd: php -v options: service: default: appserver describe: Run php in different service
# Get the version in the appserver lando php-version # Get the version in the second appserver lando php-version --service appserver2 # Get the version in the third appserver lando php-version --service appserver3
This can help avoid the following messy and hard-to-scale implementation
tooling: php-version: service: appserver cmd: php -v php-version2: service: appserver2 cmd: php -v php-version3: service: appserver3 cmd: php -v
Options driven tooling
You can also define your own options for use in tooling. These options follow the same spec as Lando tasks and are generally used in combination with an underlying script.
Note that the options interface just provides a way to define and then inject options into a given command. It is up to the user to make sure the underlying command or script knows what to do with such options. Note that if you use interactive options you need to set
level: app as below.
tooling: word: service: web cmd: /app/word.sh level: app options: word: passthrough: true alias: - w describe: Print what the word is interactive: type: input message: What is the word? default: bird weight: 600
# This will prompt for the word lando word # This will not lando word --word=fox
Pipes, Carrots and Ampersands OH MY!
If Lando sees any combination of
& in any of the defined commands it will automatically wrap the entire command in
/bin/sh -c "<command>". This means that if you pipe or carrot commands they are all happening INSIDE the service and not going from the container to host or vice-versa.
In most situations you will not notice this distinction but not in all situations. Consider the following:
# Go into the app root cd /path/to/my/app # Export a database lando db-export --stdout > dump.sql ls -lsa # See the database dump in the filesystem # Export someplace else and assume you can write to / lando db-export --stdout > /dump.sql ls -lsa / # Do not see the database dump lando ssh -s appserver -c "ls -lsa /" # See the database dump
You can override tooling provided by Lando recipes or upstream Landofiles by redefining the tooling command in your Landofile.
For example, if you wanted to override the built in
drush command that comes with Drupaly recipes so that it always runs in a specific directory and always uses the
drush you installed via
composer you could do the below.
tooling: drush: cmd: "/app/vendor/bin/drush --root=/app/web"
You can also use "tooling overrides" to disable any other predefined or upstream tooling by setting the command to a non-object value in your Lando file.
While any value will do it's customary to use
disabled as in the below.
tooling: push: disabled
Lando will try to map your host directory to the analogous directory inside the service. This should MAKE IT SEEM as though you are running the command locally eg not in a container. Consider
cd /path/to/my/app lando ssh -c "pwd" # /app cd web lando ssh -c "pwd" # /app/web
If you are not sure about what tools live inside your container, you can use
lando ssh to drop into a shell on a specific service to both investigate and install any needed dependencies.
Note that while you can do the below, it's generally recommended to install any additional dependencies as part of a build process using either the specific dependency management options built into the service you are using or with Lando's more generic build steps.
# SSH into the appserver lando ssh -s appserver # Explore whether grunt is installed which grunt # not installed # Add grunt npm install -g grunt-cli # Exit the appserver container exit # Add grunt to the tooling in your .lando.yml