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Security

Lando tries to find the fine line between good security and good user experience. SPOILER ALERT: It ain't easy.

The things we do by default and how you can modify them to your needs are shown below:

Exposure

As of 3.0.0-rrc.5, Lando will bind all exposed services to 127.0.0.1 for security reasons. This means your services are only available to your machine. You can alter this behavior in one of two ways.

1. Changing the bind address

You can modify the Lando global config to change the default bind address:

# Bind my exposes services to all intefaces
bindAddress: "0.0.0.0"
# Bind my exposes services to a single IP
bindAddress: "10.0.1.1"

You will then need to lando rebuild your service for the changes to take effect.

2. Overridding a particular service

If you override a particular service and specify the external IP then Lando will honor that choice and not force override with the bindAddress.

# This will find a random port on 0.0.0.0
# and route it to port 80 on your appsrver service
services:
  appserver:
    overrides:
      ports:
        - "0.0.0.0::80"

Note that there are security implications to both of the above and it is not recommended you do this.

Certificates

Lando uses its own Certificate Authority to sign the certs for each service and to ensure that these certs are trusted on our internal Lando network. They should live inside every service at /certs.

/certs
|-- cert.crt
|-- cert.csr
|-- cert.ext
|-- cert.key
|-- cert.pem

However, for reasons detailed in this blog post, we do not trust this CA on your system automatically. Instead, we require you to opt-in manually as a security precaution.

This means that by default you will receive browser warnings when accessing https proxy routes.

Trusting the CA

While Lando will automatically trust this CA internally, it is up to you to trust it on your host machine. Doing so will alleviate browser warnings regarding certs we issue.

You may need to destroy the proxy container and rebuild your app!

If you've tried to trust the certificate but are still seeing browser warnings you may need to remove the proxy with docker rm -f landoproxyhyperion5000gandalfedition_proxy_1 and then lando rebuild your app.

The default Lando CA should be located at ~/.lando/certs/lndo.site.pem. If you don't see the cert there, try starting up an app as this will generate the CA if its not already there. Note that if you change the Lando domain in the global config, you will have differently named certs and you will likely need to trust these new certs and rebuild your apps for them to propagate correctly.

Also note that in accordance with the restrictions on wildcard certs, changing the domain may result in unexpected behavior depending on how you set it. For example, setting domain to a top level domain such as test will not work while local.test will.

Also note that we produce a duplicate crt file that you can use for systems that have stricter rules around how the certs are named. This means that by default, you will also end up with a file called ~/.lando/certs/lndo.site.crt in addition to ~/.lando/certs/lndo.site.pem.

That all said, once you've located the correct cert, you can add or remove it with the relevant commands below.

macOS

# Add the Lando CA
sudo security add-trusted-cert -d -r trustRoot -k /Library/Keychains/System.keychain ~/.lando/certs/lndo.site.pem

# Remove Lando CA
sudo security delete-certificate -c "Lando Local CA"

Windows

# Add the Lando CA
certutil -addstore -f "ROOT" C:\Users\ME\.lando\certs\lndo.site.pem

# Remove Lando CA
certutil -delstore "ROOT" serial-number-hex

Debian

# Add the Lando CA
sudo cp -r ~/.lando/certs/lndo.site.pem /usr/local/share/ca-certificates/lndo.site.pem
sudo cp -r ~/.lando/certs/lndo.site.crt /usr/local/share/ca-certificates/lndo.site.crt
sudo update-ca-certificates

# Remove Lando CA
sudo rm -f /usr/local/share/ca-certificates/lndo.site.pem
sudo rm -f /usr/local/share/ca-certificates/lndo.site.crt
sudo update-ca-certificates --fresh

Ubuntu with Firefox

Import the ~/.lando/certs/lndo.site.pem CA certificate in Firefox by going to about:preferences#privacy > View Certificates > Authorities > Import, enabling Trust this CA to identify websites..

Arch

# Add the Lando CA
sudo trust anchor ~/.lando/certs/lndo.site.pem
sudo trust anchor ~/.lando/certs/lndo.site.crt

# Remove Lando CA
sudo trust anchor --remove ~/.lando/certs/lndo.site.pem
sudo trust anchor --remove ~/.lando/certs/lndo.site.crt

Firefox maintains its own certificate store!

Firefox users may still see browser warnings after performing the steps above. Firefox maintains its own certificate store and does not, by default, use the operating system's certificate store. To allow Firefox to use the operating system's certificate store, the security.enterprise_roots.enabled setting must be set to true.

  • In Firefox, type about:config in the address bar
  • If prompted, accept any warnings
  • Search for security.enterprise_roots.enabled
  • Set the value to true

SSH Keys

We also will inject SSH keys into each service but this is highly configurable.