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# Drupal 9

Drupal is a free and open source content-management framework written in PHP and distributed under the GNU General Public License. Drupal provides a back-end framework for at least 2.3% of all web sites worldwide – ranging from personal blogs to corporate, political, and government sites.

Lando offers a configurable recipe for developing Drupal 9 (opens new window) apps.

This is a new recipe!

This is a relatively new recipe. As such this recipe should be considered beta quality.

# Getting Started

Before you get started with this recipe we assume that you have:

  1. Installed Lando and gotten familiar with its basics
  2. Initialized a Landofile for your codebase for use with this recipe
  3. Read about the various services, tooling, events and routing Lando offers.

However, because you are a developer and developers never ever RTFM (opens new window) you can also run the following commands to try out this recipe with a vanilla install of Drupal 9.

# Initialize a drupal9 recipe using the latest drupal 9 version
lando init \
  --source remote \
  --remote-url https://www.drupal.org/download-latest/tar.gz \
  --remote-options="--strip-components 1" \
  --recipe drupal9 \
  --webroot . \
  --name my-first-drupal9-app

# Start it up
lando start

# List information about this app.
lando info

# Configuration

While Lando recipes set sane defaults so they work out of the box they are also configurable.

Here are the configuration options, set to the default values, for this recipe's Landofile. If you are unsure about where this goes or what this means we highly recommend scanning the recipes documentation to get a good handle on how the magicks work.

recipe: drupal9
  php: '8.0'
  composer_version: '2.0.7'
  via: apache:2.4
  webroot: .
  database: mysql:5.7
  drush: false
  xdebug: false
    database: SEE BELOW
    php: SEE BELOW
    server: SEE BELOW
    vhosts: SEE BELOW

Note that if the above config options are not enough all Lando recipes can be further extended and overriden.

# Choosing a php version

You can set php to any version that is available in our php service. However, you should consult the Drupal requirements (opens new window) to make sure that version is actually supported by Drupal 9 itself.

Here is the recipe config to set the Drupal 9 recipe to use php version 7.4

recipe: drupal9
  php: '7.4'

# Choosing a composer version

You can set composer_version to any version that is available in our php service.

recipe: drupal9
  composer_version: '1.10.1'

# Choosing a webserver

By default this recipe will be served by the default version of our apache service but you can also switch this to use nginx. We highly recommend you check out both the apache and nginx services before you change the default via.

# With Apache (default)

recipe: drupal9
  via: apache

# With nginx

recipe: drupal9
  via: nginx

# Choosing a database backend

By default this recipe will use the default version of our mysql service as the database backend but you can also switch this to use mariadb or 'postgres' instead. Note that you can also specify a version as long as it is a version available for use with lando for either mysql, mariadb or postgres.

If you are unsure about how to configure the database we highly recommend you check out the mysql, mariadband 'postgres' services before you change the default.

Also note that like the configuration of the php version you should consult the Drupal 9 requirements (opens new window) to make sure the database and version you select is actually supported by Drupal 9 itself.

# Using MySQL (default)

recipe: drupal9
  database: mysql

# Using MariaDB

recipe: drupal9
  database: mariadb

# Using Postgres

recipe: drupal9
  database: postgres

# Using a custom version

recipe: drupal9
  database: mariadb:10.4

# Using Drush

As of Drupal 9 and Drush 10 it is preferred you use a site-local install of Drush (opens new window). For that reason Lando will not globall install a version of Drush for Drupal 9 sites.

You can site-local install drush by requiring it in your projects composer.json file.

lando composer require drush/drush

Once you do, Lando will be able to use drush normally.

# Build steps

Once drush is listed in your composer.json it is also recommended to configure a build step to automatically install Drush before your app starts up. This ensures drush is available after lando start and during any other build steps or events.

Automatically composer install before my app starts

recipe: drupal9
      - composer install

If you find that Lando is not using your drush as expected, which can happen if you've modified composer to install in a different directory than its normal vendor you can take advantage of Lando's tooling overrides and specify an absolute path to your Drush.

    cmd: /path/to/my/drush

# Default URL Setup

You may see http://default show up in many drush commands you run.

lando drush uli
// http://default/user/reset/1/1548025070/Px6PbLyJ_2laXqoDe6OukHXaX-cXExo4ErfrKbkqsE4/login

This happens because it is actually a difficult problem for Lando to 100% know the canonical URL or service that is serving your application. However you can set up your environment so that commands like lando drush uli return the proper URL.

    service: appserver
      DRUSH_OPTIONS_URI: "https://mysite.lndo.site"

# Using xdebug

This is just a passthrough option to the xdebug setting that exists on all our php services. The tl;dr is xdebug: true enables and configures the php xdebug extension and xdebug: false disables it.

recipe: drupal9
  xdebug: true|false

However, for more information we recommend you consult the php service documentation.

# Using custom config files

You may need to override our default Drupal 9 config (opens new window) with your own.

If you do this you must use files that exist inside your application and express them relative to your project root as below.

Note that the default files may change based on how you set both ssl and via. Also note that the vhosts and server config will be either for apache or nginx depending on how you set via. We highly recommend you check out both the apache and nginx if you plan to use a custom vhosts or server config.

A hypothetical project

Note that you can put your configuration files anywhere inside your application directory. We use a config directory in the below example but you can call it whatever you want such as .lando.

|-- config
   |-- default.conf
   |-- my-custom.cnf
   |-- php.ini
   |-- server.conf
|-- index.php
|-- .lando.yml

Landofile using custom drupal9 config

recipe: drupal9
    database: config/my-custom.cnf
    php: config/php.ini
    server: config/server.conf
    vhosts: config/default.conf

# Connecting to your database

Lando will automatically set up a database with a user and password and also set an environment variables called LANDO INFO that contains useful information about how your application can access other Lando services.

Here is the default database connection information for a Drupal 9 site. Note that the host is not localhost but database.

database: drupal9
username: drupal9
password: drupal9
host: database
# for mysql
port: 3306
# for postgres
# port: 5432

You can get also get the above information, and more, by using the lando info command.

# Importing Your Database

Once you've started up your Drupal 9 site you will need to pull in your database and files before you can really start to dev all the dev. Pulling your files is as easy as downloading an archive and extracting it to the correct location. Importing a database can be done using our helpful lando db-import command.

# Grab your database dump
curl -fsSL -o database.sql.gz "https://url.to.my.db/database.sql.gz"

# Import the database
# NOTE: db-import can handle uncompressed, gzipped or zipped files
# Due to restrictions in how Docker handles file sharing your database
# dump MUST exist somewhere inside of your app directory.
lando db-import database.sql.gz

You can learn more about the db-import command over here

# Tooling

By default each Lando Drupal 9 recipe will also ship with helpful dev utilities.

This means you can use things like drush, composer and php via Lando and avoid mucking up your actual computer trying to manage php versions and tooling.

lando composer          Runs composer commands
lando db-export [file]  Exports database from a service into a file
lando db-import <file>  Imports a dump file into database service
lando drush             Runs drush commands
lando mysql             Drops into a MySQL shell on a database service
lando php               Runs php commands

Usage examples

# Doing a drush site install
lando drush si --db-url=mysql://drupal9:drupal9@database/drupal9 -y

# Run composer tests
lando composer test

# Drop into a mysql shell
lando mysql

# Check hte app's installed php extensions
lando php -m

You can also run lando from inside your app directory for a complete list of commands which is always advisable as your list of commands may not 100% be the same as the above. For example if you set database: postgres you will get lando psql instead of lando mysql.